NiCAD vs. NiMH Batteries

NiCAD vs. NiMH Batteries NiCad (Nickel-Cadmium) and NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) are two very different types of batteries. Both types must be handled differently from one another in regards to charging and discharging procedures and philosophies. In general, NiMH batteries cannot handle the high rate of charges or discharges (typically over 1.5-2 amps) that NiCad batteries can. Many modelers use high rate, peak detection or time-based chargers to charge NiCad batteries. Such chargers are NOT recommend

Source: NiCAD vs. NiMH Batteries

NiCAD vs. NiMH Batteries

NiCad (Nickel-Cadmium) and NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) are two very different types of batteries. Both types must be handled differently from one another in regards to charging and discharging procedures and philosophies.

In general, NiMH batteries cannot handle the high rate of charges or discharges (typically over 1.5-2 amps) that NiCad batteries can. Many modelers use high rate, peak detection or time-based chargers to charge NiCad batteries. Such chargers are NOT recommended for NiMH batteries (unless otherwise specified in the charger or battery literature) as they can cause permanent damage to the NiMH cells. Also, NiMH batteries will not perform well in high rate discharge applications, typically providing only a small fraction of the rated capacity in these instances.

NiMH batteries also have approximately twice the self-discharge rate of NiCad batteries when in an used state. For example, when your radio is off, a 1650mah NiMH battery can discharge itself nearly twice as quickly as a NiCad battery, typically within one week. Therefore, you must charge your NiMH batteries the night before each use.

When handled correctly though, NiMH batteries can be very beneficial, providing much longer run times than comparably sized and weighted NiCad batteries.

We highly recommend NiMH batteries in applications that call for long duration but not a high amp load. If you have an aircraft with very large servos that pull a lot of amps or more than 8 standard servos we recommend using NiCad batteries for the best results.

Choosing the correct battery for your application is critical. When making this decision you may need to ask yourself the following questions:

  1. How much room do I have?
  2. How much weight can my application handle?
  3. How many amps will I be using under full load?
  4. How much “run-time” do I need?
  5. How fast do I need to recharge?

How to Edit Your Hosts File on Windows, Mac, or Linux

Source: How to Edit Your Hosts File on Windows, Mac, or Linux

How to Edit Your Hosts File on Windows, Mac, or Linux

On occasion you will need to edit the hosts file on your machine. Sometimes because of an attack or prank, and others so that you can simply and freely control access to websites and network traffic.

hosts files have been in use since ARPANET. They were used to resolve hosts names before DNS. hosts files would be massive documents used to aide the network name resolution.

Microsoft kept the hosts file alive in Windows networking which is why it varies very little whether used in Windows, macOS, or Linux. The syntax stays mostly the same across all platforms. Most hosts files will have several entries for loopback. We can use that for the basic example for the typical syntax.

The first part will be the location to redirect the address to, the second part will be the address that you will want to redirect, and the third part is the comment. They can be separated by a space, but for ease of reading are typically separated by one or two tabs.

127.0.0.1 localhosts #loopback

Now let’s look at accessing the hosts files in the different operating systems…

Windows 8 or 8.1 or 10

Unfortunately Windows 8 or 10 makes it annoying to open apps as administrator — but it’s not too difficult. Just search for Notepad, then right-click on Notepad in the search results list, and choose to run it as administrator. If you’re using Windows 10 this will be on the Start Menu.

If you’re using Windows 10, it’ll look more like this:

Windows_10

Once you’ve done so, open up the following file using the File -> Open feature.

c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts

Windows_10

Then you can edit as normal.

Windows 7

To access the hosts file in Windows 7 you can use the following command in the Run Line to open notepad and the file.

notepad c:\windows\system32\drivers\etc\hosts

sshot-2010-08-31-[19-41-19]

Once notepad is open you can edit the file. In this example we will block Facebook. To do this just enter in the following after the # mark.

0.0.0.0    www.facebook.com

sshot-2010-08-31-[20-51-49]

Now that you have edited your Hosts file make sure to save it.

sshot-2010-08-31-[20-54-07]

Now notice if we try to access Facebook in IE we can’t get to the page.

sshot-2010-08-31-[20-56-44]

We also were not able to get to it in Google Chrome… (check notes at the end). Also for more info on editing your Hosts file, check out The Geek’s article on how to create a shortcut to quickly edit your Hosts file.

sshot-2010-08-31-[21-04-27]

Ubuntu

In Ubuntu 10.04 and most Linux distro’s you can edit the hosts file directly in the terminal. You can use your favorite editor or even open your favorite GUI text editor. For this example we will use VIM. Like Windows 7, Ubuntu’s hosts file is located in the /etc/ folder, though here it is in the root of the drive. In order to edit the file you will need to open it as root which is why we use sudo here.

Now that it is open we can edit it to redirect Facebook into nothing. You will notice that with Ubuntu there is also a section for IP6. For most needs you will only need to edit it the top section and ignore the IP6.

Now we can save the file and try to go to Facebook.com. Just like in windows we will see that we are now redirected to a site that does not exist.

sshot-2010-08-31-[23-14-30]

macOS (Any Version)

In macOS, accessing the hosts file is very similar to Ubuntu. Begin in terminal and use your favorite editor, even is you wish to call a GUI text editor, it is easier to do so from terminal.

The file will look a bit more like Windows, only with a little less explanation. Again we are going to redirect Facebook.

This time it seems that 0.0.0.0 is a loopback and will direct you to the computers Apache test page.

Notes

There are some things to note from this walkthrough that we did notice. When tested it, Chrome did not use the hosts file in any operating system but we were able to block Facebook in Chrome by adding www.facebook.com. Also, make sure to place and extra line after the last entry for the section.

This should get you started in understanding the Hosts file and how it can help protect your computer. You can use it to block sites that you don’t want a PC to be able to access. If you have more suggestions for any of the operating systems we coved, then leave a comment and let us know!

Create a Shortcut to Quickly Edit Your Hosts File in Windows

Chris is a Mac geek who still knows his way around Linux and Windows. He’s always looking for a good way to translate geek to english.

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Which Headlights Shine Best: Halogen, HID or LED? | Angie’s List

While old-school halogen still rules the road, LED headlights are becoming more popular.

Drivers may soon notice brighter and whiter headlights on the road as the popularity of traditional halogen headlights continues to dim.

Halogen still ranks highest as the most common headlight on the market, but several alternatives, including xenon-based and light-emitting diode (LED) headlights, are growing in popularity. Here’s how the options compare in terms of performance, safety and price.

Headlight versus headlight

According to Motor Trend, you’ll notice several important differences in light produced by LEDs, xenon and halogen headlights. LEDs have the coolest color temperature at around 6,000 Kelvin, which makes them appear whiter than daylight. Xenon headlights come in at around 4,500 K, while halogens round out the list at a yellowish 3,200 K.

When it comes to reflection, LEDs offer better light return from road signs, while xenon lamps better illuminate the sides of the road. In part, this is because xenon lamps typically produce more light, measured in lumens, than LEDs.

Both LEDs and xenon provide a large pattern of light on the road, whereas halogens offer a small pool of yellow light directly in front of the vehicle. If you’re buying a new car, expect LED headlights to be the premium option, and make sure your auto repair shop is equipped to handle LED headlight replacements and repairs.

If you’re looking for intense light and don’t mind the glare, xenon may be the best choice. LEDs, meanwhile, offer great light, low power and long life, but often come with a bigger price tag.

Halogen headlights

Halogen lights are the most popular lights on the market and are found in most consumer cars. These bulbs are similar to familiar incandescent lights and use heated tungsten filaments to produce light. Halogen headlights produce a significant amount of heat, and even small deposits of skin moisture on the bulb during replacement can affect their performance.

The main benefits of halogen bulbs include low replacement costs and longevity.

Xenon headlights

Xenon lights, also known as high-intensity discharge (HID) lights, produce a brighter light than halogen bulbs and with far less heat. The blue-white light emitted by xenon bulbs is so bright, it has been known to “blind” other drivers.

These headlights require a large amount of power at the outset to produce their first burst of light, but once fully operational, they require much less energy to maintain constant brightness.

Xenon bulbs have a long lifespan and emit little heat, but they cost more than halogen bulbs.

LED headlights

LEDs are the most recent innovation in headlight technology. Instead of gas and filaments, LEDs rely on small diodes that produce light when electric current excites their electrons. They need an low amount of power to work but do produce a significant amount of heat on the diode. This requires heat control systems at the bottom of the headlight and near other car components. If this system fails, not just the light, but other electronics could be affected.

The small size of LEDs means they can be formed into almost any shape, and their light is naturally directional rather than diffuse, making them an excellent choice for headlights.

Editor’s note: This is an updated version on an article originally posted on Nov. 20, 2013.

Source: Which Headlights Shine Best: Halogen, HID or LED? | Angie’s List